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Microalbuminuria: a sentinel of neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected individuals?

Abstract : Background: According to population-based studies, microalbuminuria is associated with subsequent cognitive decline over a 4-6-year period, because of cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD). This prospective cross-sectional study (NCT02852772) was designed to evaluate whether a history of microalbuminuria is associated with subsequent cognitive decline in combined antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIVs). Methods: From our computerized medical database, we identified 30 PLHIVs (median age 52 years), immunovirologically controlled on cART, who had microalbuminuria in 2008 and had undergone, between 2013 and 2015, a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment (NPA) including seven domains (cases): information-processing speed, motor skills, executive functions, attention/working memory, learning/memory, reasoning and verbal fluency. Forty-nine PLHIVs matched for age (median age 48 years; p = 0.19), sex, and year of first HIV-seropositivity without microalbuminuria in 2008 were identified and underwent the same NPA between 2013 and 2015 (controls). Results: Cases performed less well than controls for information-processing speed (p = 0.01) and motor skills (p = 0.02), but no differences were found for the other cognitive domains and global z-scores. A multivariable linear-regression model adjusted for confounding factors confirmed the microalbuminuria effect for the information-processing-speed z score. Conclusion: cART-treated PLHIVs with a history of microalbuminuria subsequently had worse cognitive performances for the information-processing-speed domain, possibly because of CSVD. Our observations should be considered preliminary findings of a temporal link between microalbuminuria, CSVD, and subsequent cognitive impairment.
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Antoine Moulignier, Anne-Claire Viret-Vilayphon, François-Xavier Lescure, Emmanuelle Plaisier, Laurence Salomon, et al.. Microalbuminuria: a sentinel of neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected individuals?. European Journal of Neurology, Wiley, In press, ⟨10.1007/s00415-019-09674-6⟩. ⟨hal-02473307⟩

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