M. F. Abur-robb and D. W. Windle, On the day and night reversal in NmF2 North-South asymmetry, Planetary and Space Science, vol.17, issue.1, pp.97-106, 1969.
DOI : 10.1016/0032-0633(69)90126-3

P. R. Arendt and H. Soicher, Downward electron flux at 1000 km altitude from electron content measurement at mid-latitudes, Nature, pp.204-983, 1964.

J. Adohi, P. M. Vila, C. Amory-mazaudier, and M. Petitdidier, Equinox transition at the magnetic equator in Africa: analysis of ESF ionograms, Annales Geophysicae, vol.26, issue.7, pp.1777-1792, 2008.
DOI : 10.5194/angeo-26-1777-2008

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00369442

D. N. Anderson, Modeling the ambient, low latitude F-region ionosphere???a review, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, vol.43, issue.8, pp.753-762, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9169(81)90051-9

D. N. Anderson, A theoretical study of the ionospheric F region equatorial anomaly???I. Theory, Planetary and Space Science, vol.21, issue.3, pp.409-419, 1973.
DOI : 10.1016/0032-0633(73)90040-8

D. N. Anderson, A theoretical study of the ionospheric F region equatorial anomaly???II. results in the American and Asian sectors, Planetary and Space Science, vol.21, issue.3, 1973.
DOI : 10.1016/0032-0633(73)90041-X

G. J. Bailey, R. Sellek, and N. Balan, The effect of interhemispheric coupling on nighttime enhancements in ionospheric total electron content during winter at solar minimum, Ann. Geophys, vol.9, pp.738-747, 1991.

N. Balan and P. B. Rao, Latitudinal variations of nighttime enhancements in total electron content, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.18, issue.A4, pp.3436-3440, 1987.
DOI : 10.1029/JA092iA04p03436

N. Balan, G. J. Bailey, B. Nair, and R. , Latitudinal variations of nighttime enhancements in TEC: Solar and magnetic activity effects, Advances in Space Research, vol.12, issue.6, pp.60-69, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0273-1177(92)90059-7

N. Balan, J. J. Bailey, R. J. Moffett, Y. Z. Su, and J. E. Titheridge, Modelling studies of the conjugate-hemisphere differences in ionospheric ionization at equatorial anomaly latitudes, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, vol.57, issue.3, pp.279-292, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9169(94)E0019-J

F. Bertin and J. P. Lepine, Latitudinal Variation of Total Electron Content in the Winter at Middle Latitudes, Radio Science, vol.31, issue.9, pp.899-90610, 1970.
DOI : 10.1029/RS005i006p00899

C. Lal, Seasonal trend of geomagnetic activity derived from solar-terrestrial geometry confirms an axial-equinoctial theory and reveals deficiency in planetary indices, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, vol.58, issue.13, pp.13-1497, 1996.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9169(95)00182-4

E. W. Cliver, Y. Kamide, and A. G. Ling, The semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity: phases and profiles for 130 years of aa data, Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, vol.64, issue.1, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S1364-6826(01)00093-1

E. W. Cliver, Y. Kamide, and A. G. Ling, Mountains versus valleys: Semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, vol.101, issue.24, p.31, 2000.
DOI : 10.1029/1999JA900439

E. W. Cliver, Y. Kamide, A. G. Ling, and N. Yokoyama, Semiannual variation of the geomagnetic Dst index: Evidence for a dominant non storm component, J. Geophys. Res, vol.106, issue.21, pp.10297-304, 2001.

D. J. Crain, R. A. Heelis, and G. J. Bailey, region a dominant driver in the low-latitude dynamo?, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, vol.18, issue.12, p.6033, 1993.
DOI : 10.1029/92JA02195

K. Davies, A. K. Anderson, P. W. Degenhart, G. K. Hartmann, and R. Leitinger, Nighttime increases in total electron content observed with the ATS 6 radio beacon, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.36, issue.A4, pp.1536-1542, 1979.
DOI : 10.1029/JA084iA04p01536

D. Rosa, A. V. , F. L. Smith, and I. , Behavior of the nighttime ionosphere, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.71, issue.7, pp.1829-183610, 1967.
DOI : 10.1029/JZ072i007p01829

J. V. Evans, region eclipse, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.6, issue.1, pp.131-14210, 1965.
DOI : 10.1029/JZ070i001p00131

J. V. Evans, On the behavior of foF 2 during solar eclipses, J, 1965.

D. T. Farley, E. Bonelli, B. G. Fejer, and M. F. Larsen, The prereversal enhancement of the zonal electric field in the equatorial ionosphere, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.41, issue.A12, 1986.
DOI : 10.1029/JA091iA12p13723

T. W. Garner, P. G. Richards, and R. H. Comfort, Anomalous nighttime electron temperature events over Millstone Hill, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.86, issue.A6, pp.411-1110, 1994.
DOI : 10.1029/94JA00261

W. B. Hanson and B. J. Moffett, region, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.27, issue.23, pp.5559-5571, 1966.
DOI : 10.1029/JZ071i023p05559

R. A. Heelis, P. C. Kendall, R. J. Moffett, D. W. Windle, and H. Rishbeth, Electrical coupling of the E- and F-regions and its effect on F-region drifts and winds, Planetary and Space Science, vol.22, issue.5, p.743, 1974.
DOI : 10.1016/0032-0633(74)90144-5

I. Horvath and E. A. Essex, Using observations from the GPS and TOPEX satellites to investigate night-time TEC enhancements at midlatitudes in the southern hemisphere during a low sunspot number period, J, 2000.

A. R. Jain and P. J. Williams, The maintenance of the night-time ionosphere at mid-latitudes. II. The ionosphere above St. Santin, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, vol.46, issue.1, 1984.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9169(84)90047-3

N. Jakowski, A. Jungstand, L. Lois, and B. Lazo, Night-time enhancements of the F2-layer ionization over Havana, Cuba, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, vol.53, issue.11-12, pp.1131-1138, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9169(91)90062-C

N. Jakowski and M. Förster, About the nature of the Night-time Winter Anomaly effect (NWA) in the F-region of the ionosphere, Planetary and Space Science, vol.43, issue.5, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0032-0633(94)00115-8

J. A. Klobuchar, Ionospheric effects on GPS, in: Global Positioning System: Theory and application, 1996.

J. A. Klobuchar, J. Aarons, and H. H. Hosseinieh, Midlatitude nighttime total electron content behavior during magnetically disturbed periods, Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.71, issue.23, pp.7530-7534, 1968.
DOI : 10.1029/JA073i023p07530

M. J. Sparks and . Reyes, A new ionospheric model for wide area differential GPS: the multiple shell approach, p.2002, 2002.

S. Legrand, Solar cycle and geomagnetic activity: a review for geophysicists. Part I. The contributions to geomagnetic activity of shock waves and of the solar wind, Annales Geophysicae, vol.7, issue.6, pp.565-578, 1989.

K. May-britt, Space Physics: An Introduction to Plasmas and Particles in the Heliosphere and Magnetospheres Springer, 2004.

R. W. Meggs and C. N. Mitchell, A study into the errors in vertical total electron content mapping using GPS data, Radio Science, vol.31, issue.6, 2006.
DOI : 10.1029/2005RS003308

A. V. Mikhailov, T. Y. Leschinskaya, and M. Förster, Morphology of NmF2 nighttime increases in the Eurasian sector, Morphology of NmF2 nighttime increases in the Eurasian sector, pp.618-628, 2000.
DOI : 10.1007/s00585-000-0618-5

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00316666

Y. Norsuzila, M. Abdullah, M. Ismail, and A. Zaharim, Model Validation for Total Electron Content (TEC) at an Equatorial Region, European Journal of Scientific Research, vol.28, issue.4, pp.642-648, 2009.

O. K. Obrou, M. N. Mene, A. T. Kobea, and K. Z. Zaka, Equatorial total electron content (TEC) at low and high solar activity, Advances in Space Research, vol.43, issue.11, pp.1757-1761, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.asr.2008.04.019

O. A. Olapido, J. O. Adeniyi, S. M. Radicella, and O. K. Obrou, Variability of equatorial ionospheric density at fixed heights below the F2 peak, J, 2008.

M. Vila and . Petididier, West African equatorial ionospheric parameters climatology based on Ouagadougou ionosonde station data from, 1966.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00398828

F. Ouattara and C. Amory-mazaudier, Statistical study of the Equatorial F2 l yer O g d g d r g s l r cycles 20, 2 , 22 s g Legr d's d S m 's cl ss f c f ge m g e c c v y, Space Weather and Space Climate, 2012.

F. Ouattara, foF2 Long Term Trends at Ouagadougou Station, foF2 Long Term trends at Ougadougou station, pp.240-253, 2012.
DOI : 10.9734/BJAST/2012/1552

F. Ouattara, A. Gnabahou, and C. , Amory-Mazaudier, 2012. Seasonal, diurnal and solar-cycle variations of electron density at two West Africa equatorial ionization anomaly stations, International Journal of Geophysics

C. F. Ouattara and . Mazaudier, Statistical study of the equatorial F2 layer critical frequency at Ouagadougou during solar cycles 20, 21 and 22, using Legrand and S m 's cl ss f c f ge m g e c c v y, J. Space Weather Space Clim, 2012.

H. Pham-thi-thu, C. Amory-mazaudier, and M. L. Huy, Time variations of the ionosphere at the northern tropical crest of ionization at Phu Thuy, Vietnam, Annales Geophysicae, vol.29, issue.1, pp.197-207
DOI : 10.5194/angeo-29-197-2011

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00966413

P. G. Richards, On the relative importance of convection and temperature to the behavior of the ionosphere in North America during, J. Geophys. Res, vol.105776, issue.12, pp.763-1210, 1997.

H. Rishbeth and C. S. Setty, The F-layer at sunrise, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, vol.20, issue.4, pp.263-276, 1961.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9169(61)90205-7

H. Rishbeth, Polarization fields produced by winds in the equatorial F-region, Planetary and Space Science, vol.19, issue.3, p.357, 1971.
DOI : 10.1016/0032-0633(71)90098-5

H. Rishbeth, Thermospheric winds and the F-region: A review, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, vol.34, issue.1, 1972.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9169(72)90003-7

. H. Rishbeth, region, Radio Science, vol.77, issue.2, pp.183-187, 1974.
DOI : 10.1029/RS009i002p00183

R. J. Millward, D. W. Moffett, A. D. Idenden, and . Aylward, Annual and semiannual variation in the ionospheric F2-layer: II. Physical discussion, pp.945-956, 2000.

H. Rishbeth and I. C. Mueller-wodarg, Why is there more ionosphere in January than in July? The annual asymmetry in the F2-layer, Annales Geophysicae, vol.24, issue.12, pp.3293-3311, 2006.
DOI : 10.5194/angeo-24-3293-2006

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00318234

R. G. Roble, B. J. Salah, and . Emery, The seasonal variation of the diurnal thermospheric winds over Millstone Hill during solar cycle maximum, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, vol.39, issue.4, pp.39-503, 1977.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9169(77)90159-3

C. T. Russell and R. C. Mc-pherron, Semiannual variation of geomagnetic activity, Semi annual of Geomagnetic activity, pp.92-99, 1973.
DOI : 10.1029/JA078i001p00092

E. Sardon, A. Rius, and N. Zarraoa, Estimation of the transmitter and receiver differential biases and the ionospheric total electron content from Global Positioning System observations, Radio Science, vol.29, issue.4, pp.577-586, 1994.
DOI : 10.1029/94RS00449

D. Smith, A. E. Araujo-pradere, C. Minter, and T. Fuller-rowell, A comprehensive evaluation of the errors inherent in the use of a twodimensional shell for modelling the ionosphere, Radio Sci, p.6008, 2008.

J. J. Sojka and R. W. Schunk, A Theoretical Study of the Global F region for June Solstice, Solar Maximum, and Low Magnetic Activity, J. Geophys. Res, issue.A6, pp.90-5285, 1985.

J. J. Sojka and R. W. Schunk, Theoretical study of the seasonal behavior of the global ionosphere at solar maximum, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, vol.83, issue.A6, pp.6739-6749, 1989.
DOI : 10.1029/JA094iA06p06739

D. L. Sterling, W. B. Hanson, R. J. Moffett, and R. G. Baxter, Region, Radio Science, vol.22, issue.11, pp.1005-1023, 1969.
DOI : 10.1029/RS004i011p01005

L. Duchesne, Variation of F2 layer critical frequency with solar cycle at Dakar station, J. Sci, vol.11, issue.2, pp.16-20, 2012.

J. E. Titheridge, The electron content of the southern mid-latitude ionosphere, 1965???1971, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, vol.35, issue.5, pp.981-1001, 1965.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9169(73)90077-9

L. Triskova, The vernal-autumnal asymmetry in the seasonal variation of geomagnetic activity, Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics, vol.51, issue.2, pp.111-118, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0021-9169(89)90110-4

T. Yonezawa, On the seasonal and non-seasonal annual variations and the semiannual variation in the noon and midnight densities of the F2 layer in middle latitudes II, J. Radio Res. Labs. Japan, vol.6, pp.651-668, 1959.

L. Zou, H. Rishbeth, I. C. Muller-wodarg, A. D. Aylward, G. H. Millward et al., Annual and semiannual variation in the ionospheric F2-layer. I. Modelling Id City Location Geographic Geomagnetic D(deg) Longitude Latitude Longitude Latitude ALEX Alexandria, Ann. Geophys, vol.18, pp.945-956, 2000.