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Calcium and vitamin D have a synergistic role in a rat model of kidney stone disease

Abstract : Vitamin D supplementation in humans should be accompanied by calcium administration to avoid bone demineralization through vitamin D receptor signaling. Here we analyzed whether long-term exposure of rats to vitamin D supplementation, with or without a calcium-rich diet, would promote kidney stone formation. Four groups of rats received vitamin D alone (100,000 UI/kg/3 weeks), a calcium-enriched diet alone, both vitamin D supplementation and calcium-enriched diet, or a standard diet (controls) for 6 months. Serum and urine parameters and crystalluria were monitored. Kidney stones were assessed by 3-dimensional micro-computed tomography, infrared spectroscopy, von Kossa/Yasue staining, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Although serum calcium levels were similar in the 4 groups, rats receiving vitamin D had a progressive increase in urinary calcium excretion over time, especially those receiving both calcium and vitamin D. However, oral calcium supplementation alone did not increase urinary calcium excretion. At 6 months, rats exposed to both calcium and vitamin D, but not rats exposed to calcium or vitamin D alone, developed significant apatite kidney calcifications (mean volume, 0.121 mm3). Thus, coadministration of vitamin D and increased calcium intake had a synergistic role in tubular calcifications or kidney stone formation in this rat model. Hence, one should be cautious about the cumulative risk of kidney stone formation in humans when exposed to both vitamin D supplementation and high calcium intake.
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Emmanuel Letavernier, Cécile Verrier, Florent Goussard, Joëlle Perez, Léa Huguet, et al.. Calcium and vitamin D have a synergistic role in a rat model of kidney stone disease. Kidney International, Nature Publishing Group, 2016, 90 (4), pp.809-817. ⟨10.1016/j.kint.2016.05.027⟩. ⟨hal-01358367⟩

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