W. C. Williamsom, On the Microscopic Structure of the Scales and Dermal Teeth of Some Ganoid and Placoid Fish, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol.139, issue.0, pp.435-475, 1849.
DOI : 10.1098/rstl.1849.0023

A. S. Woodward, Catalogue of the fossil fishes in the British Museum, Natural History), 1891.

G. Clément, Lehman from the Lower Triassic of northwestern Madagascar: a redescription on the basis of new material, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, vol.5, issue.2, pp.234-242, 1999.
DOI : 10.1017/S0016756800092669

P. M. Brito, F. J. Meunier, G. Clément, and D. Geffard-kuriyama, The histological structure of the calcified lung of the fossil coelacanth Axelrodichthys araripensis (Actinistia: Mawsoniidae), Palaeontology, vol.139, issue.Suppl. 1, pp.1281-1290, 2010.
DOI : 10.1093/icb/34.2.289

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00551262

C. Cupello, Allometric growth in the extant coelacanth lung during ontogenetic development, Nature Communications, vol.18, p.8222, 2015.
DOI : 10.1017/S1431927612001079

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01206566

H. Francillon-vieillot, Skeletal biomineralization: patterns, processes and evolutionary trends, pp.175-234, 1990.

F. J. Meunier and A. Huysseune, The Concept of Bone Tissue in Osteichthyes, Netherlands Journal of Zoology, vol.42, issue.2, pp.445-458, 1992.
DOI : 10.1163/156854291X00441

W. R. Courtenay and F. A. Mckittrick, Sound-producing mechanisms in carapid fishes, with notes on phylogenetic implications, Marine Biology, vol.36, issue.1, pp.131-137, 1970.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00354916

E. Parmentier, N. Fontenelle, M. L. Fine, P. Vandewalle, and C. Henrist, Functional morphology of the sonic apparatus inOphidion barbatum (Teleostei, Ophidiidae), Journal of Morphology, vol.268, issue.12, pp.1461-1648, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/S1546-5098(08)60047-3

E. Parmentier, The rocker bone: a new kind of mineralised tissue? Cell Tissue Res, pp.67-79, 2008.

E. Parmentier, M. L. Fine, and H. K. Mok, Sound production by a recoiling system in the pempheridae and terapontidae, Journal of Morphology, vol.27, issue.6, pp.717-724, 2016.
DOI : 10.1017/S0025315403008750

F. J. Meunier, The Osteichtyes, from the Paleozoic to the extant time, through histology and palaeohistology of bony tissues, Comptes Rendus Palevol, vol.10, issue.5-6, pp.347-355, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.crpv.2011.04.005

A. G. Pearse, Histochemical: Theoretical and applied, 1985.

J. A. Kiernan, Histological & Histochemical Methods: Theory and Practice, 1990.

P. J. Gavaia, C. Sarasquete, and M. L. Cancela, Using a Modified Alcian Blue-Alizarin Red Double Staining Technique for Bone and Cartilage, Biotechnic & Histochemistry, vol.69, issue.1, pp.79-84, 2000.
DOI : 10.3109/10520299409106284

T. Ørvig, Paleohistological notes. 1. On the structure of the bone tissue in the scales of certain Paleonisciformes, Ark. Zool, vol.2, pp.321-454, 1951.

T. Ørvig, In Current Problems of Lower Vertebrate phylogeny, pp.373-397, 1968.

P. L. Forey, History of the Coelacanth Fishes, 1998.

G. M. Hughes, What can they teach us?, Italian Journal of Zoology, vol.117, issue.sup1, pp.425-429, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00227011

C. Cupello, F. J. Meunier, M. Herbin, G. Clément, and P. M. Brito, Lung anatomy and histology of the extant coelacanth shed light on the loss of air-breathing during deep-water adaptation in actinistians, Royal Society Open Science, vol.250, issue.3, p.161030, 2017.
DOI : 10.1098/rsbl.2014.0848

J. A. Long and A. M. Clement, The postcranial anatomy of two Middle Devonian lungfishes (Osteichthyes, Dipnoi) from Mt, pp.189-202, 2009.

G. Arratia, H. Schultze, and J. Casciotta, Vertebral column and associated elements in dipnoans and comparison with other fishes: Development and homology, Journal of Morphology, vol.83, issue.2, pp.101-172, 2001.
DOI : 10.1086/402573

E. L. Sharp and J. A. Clack, A review of the Carboniferous lungfish geun Ctenodus Agassiz, 1838 from the United Kingdom, with new data from articulated specimen of Ctenodus interruptus Barkas, 1869, Earth Env. Sci. T. R. So, vol.104, pp.169-204, 2013.

J. A. Long, Cranial ribs in Devonian lungfishes and the origin of dipnoan air-breathing, Mem. Assoc. Australas. Palaeontol, vol.15, pp.199-209, 1993.

B. Schaeffer, A study of Diplurus longicaudatus with notes on the body form and locomotion of the Coelacanthini, Am. Mus. Novit, vol.1110, pp.1-17, 1948.

J. A. Clack, Devonian climate change, breathing, and the origin of the tetrapod stem group, Integrative and Comparative Biology, vol.47, issue.4, pp.510-523, 2007.
DOI : 10.1093/icb/icm055

A. M. Clement and J. A. Long, Air-breathing adaptation in a marine Devonian lungfish, Biology Letters, vol.44, issue.1, pp.509-512, 2010.
DOI : 10.2113/gsecongeo.96.7.1595

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2936207

M. Zhu, Earliest known coelacanth skull extends the range of anatomically modern coelacanths to the Early Devonian, Nature Communications, vol.4, p.772, 2012.
DOI : 10.1080/106351501753462876

R. E. Golding and A. S. Jones, Micro-CT as a novel technique for 3D reconstruction of molluscan anatomy, Molluscan Res, vol.27, pp.123-128, 2007.

R. E. Golding, W. F. Ponder, and M. Byrne, Three-dimensional reconstruction of the odontophoral cartilages of Caenogastropoda (Mollusca: Gastropoda) using micro-CT: Morphology and phylogenetic significance, Journal of Morphology, vol.16, issue.5, pp.558-587, 2009.
DOI : 10.1590/S1676-06032002000200013

I. Ray-tomography and A. Platform, Plateau technique d' Accès Scientifique à la Tomographie à Rayons X We warmly thank M. García Sanz (UMS 2700, MNHN) for the X-ray tomography scans and F. Goussard (UMR 7207 CR2P CNRS MNHN?UPMC?Paris6) for support with data segmentation at the Palaeontology Imaging Unit of the Département Histoire de la Terre. Thanks are also due to P. Loubry and L. Cazes (UMR CR2P MNHN?CNRS?UPMC) for providing assistance with the scanning electron micrographs, to F. Gonnet (UMR 7208, BOREA, MNHN) for the histological sections, and to S. Morel (UMR 7207 CR2P MNHN? UPMC) for the ground sections, Special thanks go to Y. Yabumoto (Kitakyushu Museum of Natural History and Human History, Japan) for providing photograph of the Axelrodichthys specimen in Figure 1a. We gratefully acknowledge C. Bens and A. Verguin at the Collection of Comparative Anatomy of the MNHN. C.C. is funded by CNPq, pp.13-19

P. Nacional-de-pós-doutorado, /. Capes, and ). P. , was supported by grants from CNPq (proc. no. 304082/2013-9). C.C. and P.M.B. also acknowledge the support of FAPERJ (proc. no. E-26/111 This research was also supported by UMR, pp.7207-7209, 2013.