, WHO global technical consultation: global standards and tools for influenza surveillance, 8-10, World Health Organization Geneva: WHO, 2011.

. Influenzanet, , 2013.

F. Tracking, , 2007.

. Reporta, , 2009.

M. Smolinski, A. Crawley, K. Baltrusaitis, R. Chunara, J. Olsen et al., Flu Near You: Crowdsourced Symptom Reporting Spanning 2 Influenza Seasons, American Journal of Public Health, vol.105, issue.10, pp.2124-2154, 2015.
DOI : 10.2105/AJPH.2015.302696

S. Boricua, Available from: https://saludboricua, 2012.

A. Dugas, M. Jalalpour, Y. Gel, S. Levin, F. Torcaso et al., Influenza Forecasting with Google Flu Trends, PLoS ONE, vol.6, issue.2, pp.56176-23457520, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0056176.t002

M. Salathé, L. Bengtsson, T. Bodnar, D. Brewer, J. Brownstein et al., Digital epidemiology):e1002616. https, PLOS Comput Biol, vol.8, issue.7, p.22844241, 2012.

O. Wójcik, J. Brownstein, R. Chunara, and M. Johansson, Public health for the people: participatory infectious disease surveillance in the digital age, Emerging Themes in Epidemiology, vol.11, issue.1, p.24991229, 2014.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002713

C. Guerrisi, C. Turbelin, T. Blanchon, T. Hanslik, I. Bonmarin et al., Participatory Syndromic Surveillance of Influenza in Europe, Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.31, issue.suppl 4, pp.386-92, 2016.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2458-7-339

D. Paolotti, A. Carnahan, V. Colizza, K. Eames, J. Edmunds et al., Web-based participatory surveillance of infectious diseases: the Influenzanet participatory surveillance experience, Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol.20, issue.1, pp.17-21, 2014.
DOI : 10.1111/1469-0691.12477

URL : https://doi.org/10.1111/1469-0691.12477

I. Friesema, C. Koppeschaar, G. Donker, F. Dijkstra, S. Van-noort et al., Internet-based monitoring of influenza-like illness in the general population: Experience of five influenza seasons in the Netherlands, Vaccine, vol.27, issue.45, pp.6353-6360, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.05.042

Y. Vandendijck, C. Faes, and N. Hens, Eight years of the Great Influenza Survey to monitor influenza-like illness in Flanders):e64156. https, PLoS One, vol.8, issue.5, p.23691162, 2013.

C. Kjelsø, M. Galle, H. Bang, S. Ethelberg, and T. Krause, Influmeter ??? an online tool for self-reporting of influenza-like illness in Denmark, Infectious Diseases, vol.16, issue.3, pp.322-329, 2016.
DOI : 10.2807/1560-7917.ES2014.19.4.20684

A. Adler, K. Eames, S. Funk, and W. Edmunds, Incidence and risk factors for influenza-like-illness in the UK: online surveillance using Flusurvey, BMC Infectious Diseases, vol.103, issue.4, pp.232-24885043, 2014.
DOI : 10.2105/AJPH.2012.300799

URL : https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/1471-2334-14-232?site=bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com

J. Casalegno, D. Eibach, M. Valette, V. Enouf, I. Daviaud et al., Performance of influenza case definitions for influenza community surveillance: based on the French influenza surveillance network GROG, Euro Surveill, vol.22, issue.14, pp.305041560-7917, 2009.
DOI : 10.2807/1560-7917.es.2017.22.14.30504

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01753121

L. Jiang, V. Lee, W. Lim, M. Chen, Y. Chen et al., Performance of case definitions for influenza surveillance, Eurosurveillance, vol.20, issue.22, pp.21145-26062645, 2015.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0012474

URL : http://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.es2015.20.22.21145

J. Aguilera, W. Paget, A. Mosnier, M. Heijnen, H. Uphoff et al., Heterogeneous case definitions used for the surveillance of influenza in Europe, European Journal of Epidemiology, vol.18, issue.8, pp.751-755, 2003.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1025337616327

M. Debin, C. Turbelin, T. Blanchon, I. Bonmarin, A. Falchi et al., Evaluating the Feasibility and Participants??? Representativeness of an Online Nationwide Surveillance System for Influenza in France, PLoS ONE, vol.8, issue.9, p.24040020, 2013.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0073675.s001

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01618752

M. Ariza, C. Guerrisi, C. Souty, L. Rossignol, C. Turbelin et al., Healthcare-seeking behaviour in case of influenza-like illness in the French general population and factors associated with a GP consultation: an observational prospective study, BJGP Open, vol.60, issue.1, 2017.
DOI : 10.1016/j.healthpol.2013.07.011

K. Boiron, M. Sarazin, M. Debin, J. Raude, L. Rossignol et al., Opinion about seasonal influenza vaccination among the general population 3 years after the A(H1N1)pdm2009 influenza pandemic, Vaccine, vol.33, issue.48, pp.6849-54, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.08.067

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-01245493

A. Flahault, T. Blanchon, Y. Dorléans, L. Toubiana, J. Vibert et al., Virtual surveillance of communicable diseases: a 20-year experience in France, Statistical Methods in Medical Research, vol.52, issue.1, pp.413-434, 2006.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.280.15.1330

A. Mosnier, S. Caini, I. Daviaud, J. Bensoussan, F. Stoll-keller et al., Ten influenza seasons in France: distribution and timing of influenza A and B circulation, 2003???2013, BMC Infectious Diseases, vol.175, issue.1, pp.357-26289794, 2015.
DOI : 10.1016/0042-6822(90)90186-U

E. Vergu, R. Grais, H. Sarter, J. Fagot, B. Lambert et al., Medication Sales and Syndromic Surveillance, France, Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol.12, issue.3, pp.416-437, 2006.
DOI : 10.3201/eid1203.050573

URL : https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/12/3/pdfs/05-0573.pdf

, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) Influenza case definitions. 2016. [Accessed 6, Stockholm: ECDC. Available from, 2016.

C. Bayer, C. Remschmidt, M. Der-heiden, K. Tolksdorf, M. Herzhoff et al., Internet-based syndromic monitoring of acute respiratory illness in the general population of Germany, Euro Surveill, vol.3519, issue.344, pp.20684-24507468, 2011.

R. Core, Teal and contributors worldwide. The R Stats Package Available from: https://stat.ethz

T. Vega, J. Lozano, T. Meerhoff, R. Snacken, J. Beauté et al., Influenza surveillance in Europe: comparing intensity levels calculated using the moving epidemic method, Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, vol.8, issue.5, pp.234-280
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0077244

C. Wenham, E. Gray, C. Keane, M. Donati, D. Paolotti et al., Self-Swabbing for Virological Confirmation of Influenza-Like Illness Among an Internet-Based Cohort in the UK During the 2014-2015 Flu Season: Pilot Study, Journal of Medical Internet Research, vol.322, issue.7279, pp.71-29496658, 2018.
DOI : 10.1186/1471-2458-14-984

M. Jackson, M. Nguyen, B. Kirlin, and L. Madziwa, Self-Collected Nasal Swabs for Respiratory Virus Surveillance: Table 1., Open Forum Infectious Diseases, vol.9, issue.4, pp.152-26613095, 2015.
DOI : 10.1186/1743-422X-7-85

S. Goyal, K. Prasert, P. Praphasiri, M. Chittaganpitch, S. Waicharoen et al., The acceptability and validity of self-collected nasal swabs for detection of influenza virus infection among older adults in Thailand, Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, vol.6, issue.5, pp.412-419, 2017.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0021335

, WHO Regional Office for Europe guidance for sentinel influenza surveillance in humans, World Health Organization Geneva: WHO. [Accessed, vol.15, 2011.

M. Rehn, A. Carnahan, H. Merk, S. Kühlmann-berenzon, I. Galanis et al., Evaluation of an Internet-Based Monitoring System for Influenza-Like Illness in Sweden, PLoS ONE, vol.16, issue.5, p.24824806
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0096740.s002