, World Health Organization. Cartographer mean body mass index (kg/m 2 ), ages 18+, 2016 (age standardized estimate): female, 2017.

, Egypt Ministry of Health and Population

A. El-zanaty and . Program, Ministry of Health and Population and ICF International, Cairo (Egypt), 2014.

O. Ecker, P. Al-riffai, C. Breisinger, and R. El-batrawy, Nutrition and economic development: exploring Egypt's exceptionalism and the role of food subsidies, 2016.

R. Kanter and B. Caballero, Global gender disparities in obesity: a review, Adv Nutr, vol.3, issue.4, pp.491-499, 2012.

A. A. Tawfik, E. T. Hanna, A. -. Maksoud, and A. M. , Anemia and iron deficiency anemia in Egypt, IOSR J Pharm, vol.5, issue.4, pp.30-34, 2015.

, World Health Organization. The double burden of malnutrition: policy brief, 2016.

O. M. Galal, The nutrition transition in Egypt: obesity, undernutrition and the food consumption context, Public Health Nutr, vol.5, issue.1a, pp.141-149, 2002.

A. O. Musaiger, M. Al-mannai, R. Tayyem, O. Al-lalla, E. Y. Ali et al., Perceived barriers to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescents in seven Arab countries: a cross-cultural study, Sci World J, vol.2013, p.12, 2013.

H. Hassan-wassef, Food habits of the Egyptians: newly emerging trends, East Mediterr Health J, vol.10, issue.6, pp.898-915, 2004.

S. Dawoud, An analysis of food consumption patterns in Egypt, 2005.

, AQUASTAT country profile-Egypt. Rome: FAO, 2016.

, World Health Organization. Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition, 2004.

L. B. Yanoff, C. M. Menzie, B. Denkinger, N. G. Sebring, T. Mchugh et al., Inflammation and iron deficiency in the hypoferremia of obesity, Int J Obes, vol.31, p.1412, 2007.

D. Fraser and K. Abu-saad, Maternal nutrition and birth outcomes, Epidemiol Rev, vol.32, issue.1, pp.5-25, 2010.

R. Burke, J. Leon, and P. Suchdev, Identification, prevention and treatment of iron deficiency during the first 1000 days, Nutrients, vol.6, issue.10, pp.4093-114, 2014.

A. D. Gernand, K. J. Schulze, C. P. Stewart, K. P. West, . Jr et al., Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy worldwide: health effects and prevention, Nat Rev Endocrinol, vol.12, p.274, 2016.

J. Baidal, L. M. Locks, E. R. Cheng, T. L. Blake-lamb, M. E. Perkins et al., Risk factors for childhood obesity in the first 1,000 days: a systematic review, Am J Prev Med, vol.50, issue.6, pp.761-79, 2016.

R. M. Botros, I. M. Sabry, R. S. Abdelbaky, Y. M. Eid, M. S. Nasr et al., Vitamin D deficiency among healthy Egyptian females, Endocrinología y Nutrición, vol.62, issue.7, pp.314-335, 2015.

N. M. El-rifai, A. Moety, G. Gaafar, H. M. Hamed, and D. A. , Vitamin D deficiency in Egyptian mothers and their neonates and possible related factors, J Maternal-Fetal Neonatal Med, vol.27, issue.10, pp.1064-68, 2014.

A. A. Tawfik, E. T. Hanna, and S. A. Freig, Folate status in Egypt, IOSR J Nurs Health Sci, vol.3, issue.2, pp.32-38, 2014.

B. A. Holmes, M. Dao, M. Zekovic, M. Nikolic, J. Milesevic et al., Dietary survey in the Egyptian population reveals unbalanced diets with low micronutrient adequacy, p.12

, Curr Dev Nutr, vol.2, issue.11, p.46, 2018.

C. R-core-team and . Worldwide, The R Stats package "Step": choose a model by AIC in a stepwise algorithm, R Documentation, pp.22-33, 2019.

C. R-core-team, . Worldwide, S. Van-buuren, and C. G. Groothuis-oudshoorm, MICE: Multivariate Imputation by Chained Equations in R. R Documentation, Journal of Statistical Software, vol.45, issue.3, 2018.

J. J. Rhee, L. Sampson, E. Cho, M. D. Hughes, F. B. Hu et al., Comparison of methods to account for implausible reporting of energy intake in epidemiologic studies, Am J Epidemiol, vol.181, issue.4, pp.225-258, 2015.

E. L. Ferguson, N. Darmon, A. Briend, and I. M. Premachandra, Food-based dietary guidelines can be developed and tested using linear programming analysis, J Nutr, vol.134, issue.4, pp.951-958, 2004.

, Food composition tables for Egypt. Cairo (Egypt): National Nutrition Institute, 2006.

. Türkomp, Turkish food composition database. Determination of national food composition and formation of a widely available and sustainable system, 2013.

M. Gurinovi?, J. Mile?evi?, A. Kadvan, M. Djeki?-ivankovi?, J. Debeljak-marta?i? et al., Establishment and advances in the online Serbian food and recipe database harmonized with EuroFIR? standards, Food Chem, vol.193, pp.30-38, 2016.

F. Grande, B. Stadlmayr, M. Fialon, S. Dahdouh, D. Rittenschober et al., FAO/INFOODS global food composition database for pulses, version 1.0. Rome: FAO, 2017.

T. Longvah, I. An_antan_, K. Bhaskarachary, K. Venkaiah, and T. Longvah, Indian food composition tables. Telangana (India): National Institute of Nutrition, 2017.

, Egypt Ministry of Health and Population; Iodine Global Network; Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition; UNICEF; World Health Organization. Egypt Iodine Survey 2014-2015: joint statement. Cairo (Egypt): Ministry of Health and Population, 2015.

C. Henry, Basal metabolic rate studies in humans: measurement and development of new equations, Public Health Nutr, vol.8, issue.7A, pp.1133-52, 2005.

, Food and Agriculture Organization; World Health Organization, United Nations University. Human Energy Requirements: report of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU Expert Consultation, FAO Food and Nutrition Technical Report Series, vol.1, 2001.

L. Subhi, S. Bose, and M. Ani, Prevalence of physically active and sedentary adolescents in 10 Eastern Mediterranean countries and its relation with age, sex, and body mass index, J Physical Activity Health, vol.12, issue.2, pp.257-65, 2015.

, Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Diet, nutrition, and the prevention of chronic diseases: report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation, p.924120916, 2003.

. Ministry-of-health and . Egypt, Range of recommended nutrient intake of vitamins and minerals according to WHO (2004) and National Academy of, Ministry of Health Egypt, 2004.

R. Green, R. Charlton, H. Seftel, T. Bothwell, F. Mayet et al., Body iron excretion in man: a collaborative study, Am J Med, vol.45, issue.3, pp.336-53, 1968.

R. Kongkachuichai, P. Napatthalung, and R. Charoensiri, Heme and nonheme iron content of animal products commonly consumed in Thailand, J Food Compos Anal, vol.15, issue.4, pp.389-98, 2002.

G. Lombardi-boccia, B. Martinez-dominguez, and A. Aguzzi, Total heme and nonheme iron in raw and cooked meats, J Food Sci, vol.67, issue.5, pp.1738-1779, 2002.

L. Hallberg, Bioavailability of dietary iron in man, Annu Rev Nutr, vol.1, issue.1, pp.123-170, 1981.

S. M. Armah, A. Carriquiry, D. Sullivan, J. D. Cook, and M. B. Reddy, A complete dietbased algorithm for predicting nonheme iron absorption in adults, J Nutr, vol.143, issue.7, pp.1136-1176, 2013.

, EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products Nutrition and Allergies. Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for zinc, EFSA J, vol.12, issue.10, p.3844, 2014.

, Guideline: sugars intake for adults and children, World Health Organization, 2015.

L. J. Appel, D. Baker, O. Bar-or, K. Minaker, R. Morris et al., Dietary Reference Intakes for water, potassium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate, 2005.

A. O. Musaiger, Overweight and obesity in the Eastern Mediterranean region: can we control it?, East Mediterr Health J, vol.10, issue.10, pp.789-93, 2004.

K. Walseth and K. Fasting, Islam's view on physical activity and sport: Egyptian women interpreting Islam, International Review for the Sociology of Sport Journal, vol.38, issue.1, pp.45-60, 2003.

E. Nemeth, M. S. Tuttle, J. Powelson, M. B. Vaughn, A. Donovan et al., Hepcidin regulates cellular iron efflux by binding to ferroportin and inducing its internalization, Science, vol.306, issue.5704, pp.2090-2093, 2004.

P. Trumbo, S. Schlicker, A. A. Yates, and M. Poos, Dietary Reference Intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids, J Acad Nutr Diet, vol.102, issue.11, p.1621, 2002.

, EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products Nutrition and Allergies. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for fats, including saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, trans fatty acids, and cholesterol, EFSA J, vol.8, issue.3, p.1461, 2010.

, Guideline: sodium intake for adults and children, World Health Organization, 2012.

D. I. Tayel, N. A. El-sayed, and N. A. El-sayed, Dietary pattern and blood pressure levels of adolescents in Sohag, Egypt. J Egypt Public Health Assoc, vol.88, issue.2, pp.97-103, 2013.

D. Turck, J. L. Bresson, B. Burlingame, T. Dean, S. Fairweather-tait et al., Neuhäuser-Berthold M. Dietary reference values for potassium, vol.14, p.56, 2016.

M. Slackman, In Egypt, a New Battle Begins Over the Veil, 2007.

N. Elhakim, A. Laillou, A. El-nakeeb, R. Yacoub, and M. Shehata, Fortifying baladi bread in Egypt: reaching more than 50 million people through the subsidy program, Food Nutr Bull, vol.33, issue.4, pp.260-71, 2012.

, EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products Nutrition and Allergies. Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for iron, EFSA J, vol.13, issue.10, p.4254, 2015.

A. El-beshlawy, N. Kaddah, L. Rageb, I. Hussein, G. Mouktar et al., El-Sendiony H. Thalassemia prevalence and status in Egypt, Pediatr Res, vol.45, issue.S5, p.760, 1999.

A. El-beshlawy and I. Youssry, Prevention of hemoglobinopathies in Egypt, Hemoglobin, vol.33, issue.1, pp.14-20, 2009.

A. E. Field, E. H. Coakley, A. Must, J. L. Spadano, N. Laird et al., Impact of overweight on the risk of developing common chronic diseases during a 10-year period, JAMA Intern Med, vol.161, issue.13, pp.1581-1587, 2001.

C. Montagnese, L. Santarpia, F. Iavarone, F. Strangio, B. Sangiovanni et al., Food-based dietary guidelines around the world: eastern Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries, Nutrients, vol.11, issue.6, p.1325, 2019.

H. Hassan-wassef, Gaining recognition for the identity of Mediterranean products. CIHEAM (Centre International des, Hautes Etudes Agronomiques Méditerranéennes) briefing notes, vol.28, issue.22, 2007.