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Inappropriate Use of Oral Antithrombotic Combinations in an Outpatient Setting and Associated Risks: A French Nationwide Cohort Study

Abstract : With the increase in prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, multimorbidity, and medical progress, oral antithrombotic (AT) combinations are increasingly prescribed. The aims of this study were to estimate the incidence of oral AT combinations, their appropriateness (defined as indications compliant with guidelines), and the related risk of major bleeding (i.e., leading to hospitalization) or death, among new users. We conducted a 5-year historical cohort study, using the French national healthcare database, including all individuals ≥ 45 years old with a first delivery of oral ATs between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2017. The cumulative incidence of oral AT combinations was estimated with the Fine and Gray method, taking into account the competitive risk of death. We compared the cumulative incidence of major bleeding according to the type of oral AT treatment initiated at study entry (monotherapy or oral AT combinations). During the study period, 22,220 individuals were included (mean (SD) age 68 (12) years). The cumulative incidence of oral AT combinations at 5 years was 27.8% (95% confidence interval (CI) 26.8–28.9). Overall, 64% of any oral AT combinations did not comply with guidelines. The cumulative incidence of major bleeding and death in the whole cohort at 5 years was 4.1% (95% CI 3.7–4.6) and 10.8% (95% CI 10.1–11.6), respectively. Risk of major bleeding increased among individuals with oral AT combinations versus oral AT monotherapy at study entry (subdistribution hazard ratio sHR: 2.16 (1.01–4.63)); with no difference in terms of death. The use of oral AT combinations among oral AT users is frequent, often inappropriately prescribed, and associated with an increased risk of major bleeding.
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Lorène Zerah, Dominique Bonnet-Zamponi, Aya Ajrouche, Jean-Philippe Collet, Yann de Rycke, et al.. Inappropriate Use of Oral Antithrombotic Combinations in an Outpatient Setting and Associated Risks: A French Nationwide Cohort Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine, MDPI, 2021, 10 (11), pp.2367. ⟨10.3390/jcm10112367⟩. ⟨hal-03248643⟩

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