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Introduction à la taxonomie hiérarchique de la psychopathologie

Abstract : Introduction In clinical practice, the usefulness of diagnosis based on the Diagnostic or Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) or the International Classification of Diseases, 11th edition, appears essential from a clinical, research, epidemiological, administrative, economic and political level. However, such diagnostic systems have shortcomings in terms of validity, little consideration of comorbidities and strong intra-class heterogeneity. On a structural level, the operationalization of its criteria is based on a reliability which has been defined a posteriori and which does not lead to improving the validity of the diagnosis but rather to the reification of the diagnostic categories. Methods First published in its current form in 2017, the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) constitutes a nosological alternative based on statistics. It conceptualizes psychopathology as a set of hierarchical dimensions, i.e. in “transdiagnostic” continua. The HiTOP is structured according to super-spectra, spectra, sub-factors, syndromes, components and symptoms. This comes from the current dimensional psychology and quantitative nosology. This article describes the basic principles of the HiTOP project and its potential to integrate into clinical and psychiatric research based on its advantages and limitations. Results Unlike the DSM, which is descriptive and categorical, the HiTOP is first a dimensional classification. This dimensionality describes psychiatric phenomena on continua, each dimension providing a diagnostic continuum to situate a clinical patient. This dimensionality avoids the reification of categories and it limits the dichotomy between normal and pathological. In addition, HiTOP shows a hierarchical structure: vertical refinement of dimensions allows to circumvent the problem of comorbidities, proposes a new conception of etiopathogenic mechanisms, and improves management of care. Discussion Thus, we provide an illustration of the applications of a dimensional and hierarchical classification in current clinical practice and scientific research, compared to traditional nosology. The challenges of the HiTOP arise in terms of validity, i.e. in the relation of dimensions with physiopathological mechanisms, in clinical terms, i.e. in the potential contribution of dimensions in relation to categories. Moreover, methodological challenges will be important given the inherent limitations of the HiTOP. Conclusion The HiTOP allows to examine the conceptualization of psychiatric disorders, the search for explanatory mechanisms, and treatment from another perspective for psychiatry.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, December 8, 2021 - 5:03:42 PM
Last modification on : Tuesday, January 4, 2022 - 6:36:28 AM

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C. Gauld, É. Giroux, J.-A. Micoulaud-Franchi. Introduction à la taxonomie hiérarchique de la psychopathologie. L'Encéphale, Elsevier Masson, 2021, ⟨10.1016/j.encep.2021.05.008⟩. ⟨hal-03471172⟩

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