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Non-criteria manifestations in primary antiphospholipid syndrome: a French multicenter retrospective cohort study

Abstract : Background: From this retrospective study, we aimed to (1) describe the prevalence and characteristics of non-criteria features in primary antiphospholipid syndrome (p-APS) and (2) determine their prognostic value. Methods: This retrospective French multicenter cohort study included all patients diagnosed with p-APS (Sydney criteria) between January 2012 and January 2019. We used Kaplan-Meier and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models to compare the incidence of relapse in p-APS with and without non-criteria manifestations. Results: One hundred and seventy-nine patients with p-APS were included during the study time, with a median age of 52.50 years [39.0; 65.25] and mainly women (n = 112; 62.6%). Among them, forty-three patients (24.0%) presented at least one non-criteria manifestation during the follow-up: autoimmune cytopenias (n = 17; 39.5%), Libman Sachs endocarditis (n = 5; 11.6%), APS nephropathy (n = 4; 9.3%), livedo reticularis (n = 8; 18.6%), and neurological manifestations (n = 12; 27.9%). In comparison to p-APS without any non-criteria manifestations (n = 136), p-APS with non-criteria features had more arterial thrombosis (n = 24; 55.8% vs n = 48; 35.3%; p = 0.027) and more frequent pre-eclampsia (n = 6; 14.3% vs n = 4; 3.1%; p = 0.02). The prevalence of triple positivity was significantly increased in patients with non-criteria features (n = 20; 47.6% vs n = 25; 19.8%; p = 0.001). Patients with p-APS and non-criteria manifestations (n = 43) received significantly more additional therapies combined with vitamin K antagonists and/or antiaggregants. Catastrophic APS (CAPS) tended to be more frequent in p-APS with non-criteria features (n = 2; 5.1% vs none; p = 0.074). The p-APS with non-criteria manifestations had significantly increased rates of relapse (n = 20; 58.8% vs 33; 33.7%; p = 0.018) in bivariate analysis, but in survival analyses, the hazard ratio (HR) of relapse was not significantly different between the two groups (HR at 1.34 [0.67; 2.68]; p = 0.40).
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Submitted on : Thursday, January 27, 2022 - 3:00:42 PM
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Alexis F Guédon, Jennifer Catano, Laure Ricard, Charlotte Laurent, Claire de Moreuil, et al.. Non-criteria manifestations in primary antiphospholipid syndrome: a French multicenter retrospective cohort study. Arthritis Research & Therapy, BMC, 2022, 24 (1), pp.33. ⟨10.1186/s13075-022-02726-9⟩. ⟨hal-03545838⟩

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