Pan genome of the phytoplankton Emiliania underpins its global distribution

Betsy A Read 1 Jessica Kegel 2 Mary J Klute 3 Alan Kuo 4 Stephane C Lefebvre 5 Florian Maumus 6 Christoph Mayer 7, 8 John Miller 9 Adam Monier 10 Asaf Salamov 4 Jeremy Young 11 Maria Aguilar 3 Jean-Michel Claverie 12 Stephan Frickenhaus 2, 13 Karina Gonzalez 14 Emily K Herman 3 Yao-Cheng Lin 15 Johnathan Napier 16 Hiroyuki Ogata 12 Analissa F Sarno 1 Jeremy Shmutz 4, 17 Declan Schroeder 18 19 Frederic Verret 20 Peter Von Dassow 21 Klaus Valentin 2 Yves Van de Peer 15 Glen Wheeler 22, 18 Emiliana Huxleyi 23 Joel Dacks 3 Charles F. Delwiche 9 Sonya T. Dyhrman 24, 25, 26 Gernot Glöckner 27 Uwe John 2 Thomas Richards 28 Alexandra Z Worden 10 Xiaoyu Zhang 29 Igor V. Grigoriev 4
Abstract : Coccolithophores have influenced the global climate for over 200 million years1. These marine phytoplankton can account for 20 per cent of total carbon fixation in some systems2. They form blooms that can occupy hundreds of thousands of square kilometres and are distinguished by their elegantly sculpted calcium carbonate exoskeletons (coccoliths), rendering them visible from space3. Although coccolithophores export carbon in the form of organic matter and calcite to the sea floor, they also release CO2 in the calcification process. Hence, they have a complex influence on the carbon cycle, driving either CO2 production or uptake, sequestration and export to the deep ocean4. Here we report the first haptophyte reference genome, from the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi strain CCMP1516, and sequences from 13 additional isolates. Our analyses reveal a pan genome (core genes plus genes distributed variably between strains) probably supported by an atypical complement of repetitive sequence in the genome. Comparisons across strains demonstrate that E. huxleyi, which has long been considered a single species, harbours extensive genome variability reflected in different metabolic repertoires. Genome variability within this species complex seems to underpin its capacity both to thrive in habitats ranging from the equator to the subarctic and to form large-scale episodic blooms under a wide variety of environmental conditions.
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Nature, Nature Publishing Group, 2013, 499, pp.209-213. 〈10.1038/nature12221〉
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Betsy A Read, Jessica Kegel, Mary J Klute, Alan Kuo, Stephane C Lefebvre, et al.. Pan genome of the phytoplankton Emiliania underpins its global distribution. Nature, Nature Publishing Group, 2013, 499, pp.209-213. 〈10.1038/nature12221〉. 〈hal-01074841〉

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