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Crystalluria analysis improves significantly etiologic diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of nephrolithiasis

Abstract : The search for crystalluria and morphologic analysis of urinary crystals is of interest in the diagnostic evaluation and assessment of efficacy of therapeutic strategies in stone formers. In common calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis, identification of the monohydrate or dihydrate form of CaOx orients toward hyperoxaluria or hypercalciuria as the main lithogenic mechanism, respectively. An unusual high abundance of crystals exclusively made of CaOx monohydrate is highly suggestive of primary hyperoxaluria, the most severe of all types of renal stone diseases. The identification of crystal species such as struvite, cystine, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, which are not found in normal urine, is indicative of specific pathological conditions, namely, infection stones and hereditary diseases such as cystinuria and dihydroxyadeninuria. Such diseases expose to progressive loss of renal function unless they are prevented by specific therapeutic measures. The presence of crystals made of drugs may entail the risk of kidney dysfunction because of crystallization of the drug or its metabolites. Serial determination of crystalluria, which reflects the activity of stone disease and its response to therapeutic measures, is of major interest in the follow-up of patients suffering from nephrolithiasis. It should be more largely used in clinical practice in most stone formers, still more for the surveillance of patients affected by severe, hereditary renal stone diseases such as primary hyperoxaluria, cystinuria, and dihydroxyadeninuria, where determination of the global crystal volume allows assessing the efficacy of therapeutic measures and optimizing the medical management of the patients.
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Michel Daudon, Vincent Frochot, Dominique Bazin, Paul Jungers. Crystalluria analysis improves significantly etiologic diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of nephrolithiasis . Comptes Rendus. Chimie, Elsevier, 2016, 19 (11–12), pp.1514-1526. ⟨10.1016/j.crci.2016.04.010⟩. ⟨hal-01325903⟩

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