Spin fragmentation of Bose–Einstein condensates with antiferromagnetic interactions

Abstract : We study spin fragmentation of an antiferromagnetic spin 1 condensate in the presence of a quadratic Zeeman (QZ) effect breaking spin rotational symmetry. We describe how the QZ effect turns a fragmented spin state, with large fluctuations of the Zeeman populations, into a regular polar condensate, where the atoms all condense in the m = 0 state along the field direction. We calculate the average value and variance of the population of the Zeeman state m = 0 to illustrate clearly the crossover from a fragmented to an unfragmented state. The typical width of this crossover is q ~ kBT/N, where q is the QZ energy, T the spin temperature and N the atom number. This shows that the spin fluctuations are a mesoscopic effect that will not survive in the thermodynamic limit N → ∞, but are observable for a sufficiently small atom number.
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New Journal of Physics, Institute of Physics: Open Access Journals, 2013, 15, pp.113039. 〈10.1088/1367-2630/15/11/113039〉
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Luigi De Sarlo, Lingxuan Shao, Vincent Corre, Tilman Zibold, David Jacob, et al.. Spin fragmentation of Bose–Einstein condensates with antiferromagnetic interactions. New Journal of Physics, Institute of Physics: Open Access Journals, 2013, 15, pp.113039. 〈10.1088/1367-2630/15/11/113039〉. 〈hal-01587034〉

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