Pathophysiological mechanisms of autoimmunity

Abstract : Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are chronic disorders characterized by inflammatory reactions against self‐antigens that can be either systemic or organ specific. AIDs can differ in their epidemiologic features and clinical presentations, yet all share a remarkable complexity. AIDs result from an interplay of genetic and epigenetic factors with environmental components that are associated with imbalances in the immune system. Many of the pathogenic mechanisms of AIDs are also implicated in myasthenia gravis (MG), an AID in which inflammation of the thymus leads to a neuromuscular disorder. Our goal here is to highlight the similarities and differences between MG and other AIDs by reviewing the common transcriptome signatures and the development of germinal centers and by discussing some unresolved questions about autoimmune mechanisms. This review will propose hypotheses to explain the origin of regulatory T (Treg) cell defects and the causes of chronicity and specificity of AIDs.
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Muriel Sudres, Julien Verdier, Frédérique Truffault, Rozen Le Panse, Sonia Berrih-Aknin. Pathophysiological mechanisms of autoimmunity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Wiley, 2018, Myasthenia Gravis and Related Disorders II, 1413, pp.59-68. ⟨10.1111/nyas.13560⟩. ⟨hal-01817720⟩

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