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Metabolic and Molecular Mechanisms of Macrophage Polarisation and Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance

Abstract : Inflammation plays a key role in the development and progression of type-2 diabetes (T2D), a disease characterised by peripheral insulin resistance and systemic glucolipotoxicity. Visceral adipose tissue (AT) is the main source of inflammation early in the disease course. Macrophages are innate immune cells that populate all peripheral tissues, including AT. Dysregulated AT macrophage (ATM) responses to microenvironmental changes are at the root of aberrant inflammation and development of insulin resistance, locally and systemically. The inflammatory activation of macrophages is regulated at multiple levels: cell surface receptor stimulation, intracellular signalling, transcriptional and metabolic levels. This review will cover the main mechanisms involved in AT inflammation and insulin resistance in T2D. First, we will describe the physiological and pathological changes in AT that lead to inflammation and insulin resistance. We will next focus on the transcriptional and metabolic mechanisms described that lead to the activation of ATMs. We will discuss more novel metabolic mechanisms that influence macrophage polarisation in other disease or tissue contexts that may be relevant to future work in insulin resistance and T2D.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, September 16, 2020 - 12:33:13 PM
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Lucie Orliaguet, Tina Ejlalmanesh, Fawaz Alzaid. Metabolic and Molecular Mechanisms of Macrophage Polarisation and Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, MDPI, 2020, 21 (16), pp.5731. ⟨10.3390/ijms21165731⟩. ⟨hal-02940485⟩

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