Role of Adipose Tissue microRNAs in the Onset of Metabolic Diseases and Implications in the Context of the DOHaD - Sorbonne Université Access content directly
Journal Articles (Review Article) Cells Year : 2022

Role of Adipose Tissue microRNAs in the Onset of Metabolic Diseases and Implications in the Context of the DOHaD

Abstract

The worldwide epidemic of obesity is associated with numerous comorbid conditions, including metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance and diabetes, in particular. The situation is likely to worsen, as the increase in obesity rates among children will probably lead to an earlier onset and more severe course for metabolic diseases. The origin of this earlier development of obesity may lie in both behavior (changes in nutrition, physical activity, etc.) and in children's history, as it appears to be at least partly programmed by the fetal/neonatal environment. The concept of the developmental origin of health and diseases (DOHaD), involving both organogenesis and epigenetic mechanisms, encompasses such programming. Epigenetic mechanisms include the action of microRNAs, which seem to play an important role in adipocyte functions. Interestingly, microRNAs seem to play a particular role in propagating local insulin resistance to other key organs, thereby inducing global insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. This propagation involves the active secretion of exosomes containing microRNAs by adipocytes and adipose tissue-resident macrophages, as well as long-distance communication targeting the muscles and liver, for example. Circulating microRNAs may also be useful as biomarkers for the identification of populations at risk of subsequently developing obesity and metabolic diseases.
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Dates and versions

hal-03913801 , version 1 (27-12-2022)

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Laurent Kappeler. Role of Adipose Tissue microRNAs in the Onset of Metabolic Diseases and Implications in the Context of the DOHaD. Cells, 2022, 11, ⟨10.3390/cells11233711⟩. ⟨hal-03913801⟩
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