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Journal Articles (Review Article) La Revue de Médecine Interne Year : 2022

Syndrome de Guillain-Barré : physiopathologie et aspects diagnostiques

Abstract

Complementary examinations are performed to rule out a differential diagnosis and to secondarily confirm the diagnosis. GBS is usually preceded by an infectious event in ≈ 2/3 of cases. Infection leads to an immune response directed against carbohydrate antigens located on the infectious agent and the formation of anti-ganglioside antibodies. By molecular mimicry, these antibodies can target structurally similar carbohydrates found on host's nerves. Their binding results in nerve conduction failure or/and demyelination which can lead to axonal loss. Some anti-ganglioside antibodies are associated with particular variants of GBS: the Miller-Fisher syndrome, facial diplegia and paresthesias, the pharyngo-cervicobrachial variant, the paraparetic variant, and the Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis. Their semiological differences might be explained by a distinct expression of gangliosides among nerves. The aim of this review is to present pathophysiological aspects and the diagnostic approach of GBS and its variants.
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Dates and versions

hal-03980621 , version 1 (02-03-2023)

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V T Carpentier, L Le Guennec, S a A Fall, K Viala, S Demeret, et al.. Syndrome de Guillain-Barré : physiopathologie et aspects diagnostiques. La Revue de Médecine Interne, 2022, 43, pp.419 - 428. ⟨10.1016/j.revmed.2021.12.005⟩. ⟨hal-03980621⟩
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