Semaphorin-Plexin Signaling: From Axonal Guidance to a New X-Linked Intellectual Disability Syndrome - Sorbonne Université Access content directly
Journal Articles Pediatric Neurology Year : 2022

Semaphorin-Plexin Signaling: From Axonal Guidance to a New X-Linked Intellectual Disability Syndrome

Ebba Alkhunaizi
Linda E Kim
Elysa J Marco
  • Function : Author
Sumit Parikh
  • Function : Author

Abstract

Background: Semaphorins and plexins are ligands and cell surface receptors that regulate multiple neurodevelopmental processes such as axonal growth and guidance. PLXNA3 is a plexin gene located on the X chromosome that encodes the most widely expressed plexin receptor in fetal brain, plexin-A3. Plexin-A3 knockout mice demonstrate its role in semaphorin signaling in vivo. The clinical manifesta- tions of semaphorin/plexin neurodevelopmental disorders have been less widely explored. This study describes the neurological and neurodevelopmental phenotypes of boys with maternally inherited hemizygous PLXNA3 variants. Methods: Data-sharing through GeneDx and GeneMatcher allowed identification of individuals with autism or intellectual disabilities (autism/ID) and hemizygous PLXNA3 variants in collaboration with their physicians and genetic counselors, who completed questionnaires about their patients. In silico analyses predicted pathogenicity for each PLXNA3 variant. Results: We assessed 14 boys (mean age, 10.7 [range 2 to 25] years) with maternally inherited hemi- zygous PLXNA3 variants and autism/ID ranging from mild to severe. Other findings included fine motor dyspraxia (92%), attention-deficit/hyperactivity traits, and aggressive behaviors (63%). Six patients (43%) had seizures. Thirteen boys (93%) with PLXNA3 variants showed novel or very low allele frequencies and probable damaging/disease-causing pathogenicity in one or more predictors. We found a genotype- phenotype correlation between PLXNA3 cytoplasmic domain variants (exons 22 to 32) and more se- vere neurodevelopmental disorder phenotypes (P < 0.05). Conclusions: We report 14 boys with maternally inherited, hemizygous PLXNA3 variants and a range of neurodevelopmental disorders suggesting a novel X-linked intellectual disability syndrome. Greater understanding of PLXNA3 variant pathogenicity in humans will require additional clinical, computational, and experimental validation.
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hal-04534072 , version 1 (05-04-2024)

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Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivatives

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Jacqueline L Steele, Michelle M Morrow, Harvey B Sarnat, Ebba Alkhunaizi, Tracy Brandt, et al.. Semaphorin-Plexin Signaling: From Axonal Guidance to a New X-Linked Intellectual Disability Syndrome. Pediatric Neurology, 2022, 126, pp.65-73. ⟨10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2021.10.008⟩. ⟨hal-04534072⟩
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