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Multiple I-Type Lysozymes in the Hydrothermal Vent Mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus and Their Role in Symbiotic Plasticity

Abstract : The aim of this study was first to identify lysozymes paralogs in the deep sea mussel Bathy-modiolus azoricus then to measure their relative expression or activity in different tissue or conditions. B. azoricus is a bivalve that lives close to hydrothermal chimney in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). They harbour in specialized gill cells two types of endosymbiont (gram— bacteria): sulphide oxidizing bacteria (SOX) and methanotrophic bacteria (MOX). This association is thought to be ruled by specific mechanism or actors of regulation to deal with the presence of symbiont but these mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we focused on the implication of lysozyme, a bactericidal enzyme, in this endosymbiosis. The relative expression of Ba-lysozymes paralogs and the global anti-microbial activity, were measured in natural population (Lucky Strike-1700m, Mid-Atlantic Ridge), and in in situ experimental conditions. B. azoricus individuals were moved away from the hydrothermal fluid to induce a loss of symbiont. Then after 6 days some mussels were brought back to the mussel bed to induce a re-acquisition of symbiotic bacteria. Results show the presence of 6 paralogs in B. azoricus. In absence of symbionts, 3 paralogs are up-regulated while others are not differentially expressed. Moreover the global activity of lysozyme is increasing with the loss of symbiont. All together these results suggest that lysozyme may play a crucial role in symbiont regulation.
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Camille Detree, Apolline Chabenat, François H. Lallier, Nori Satoh, Eiichi Shoguchi, et al.. Multiple I-Type Lysozymes in the Hydrothermal Vent Mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus and Their Role in Symbiotic Plasticity. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2016, 11 (2), pp.e0148988. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0148988⟩. ⟨hal-01278598⟩

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