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Abstract : The reinforcement of elastomeric materials by addition of mineral fillers represents one of the most important aspects in the field of rubber science and technology. The improvement in mechanical properties arises from hydrodynamic effects depending mainly on the amount of filler and the aspect ratio of the particles and also on polymer-filler interactions depending on the surface characteristics of the filler particles and the chemical nature of the polymer. The past few years have seen the extensive use of nanometer-scale particles of different morphologies on account of the small size of the filler and the corresponding increase in the surface area that allow a considerable increase in mechanical properties even at very low filler loading. Among these nanoparticles, spherical particles (such as silica or titania) generated in situ by the sol-gel process and carbon nanotubes are typical examples of materials used as a nanosize reinforcing additive. Specific features of filled elastomers are discussed through the existing literature and through results of the author's research based on poly(dimethylsiloxane) filled with spherical silica or titania particles and on styrene-butadiene rubber filled with multiwall carbon nanotubes. The reinforcing ability of each type of filler is discussed in terms of morphology, state of dispersion (investigated by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, small-angle neutron scattering), and mechanical and electrical properties. In addition, the use of molecular spectroscopies provides valuable information on the polymer-filler interface. Spherical silica and titania spherical particles are shown to exhibit two distinct morphologies, two different polymer-filler interfaces that influence the mechanical properties of the resulting materials. The superiority of carbon nanotubes over carbon black for mechanical reinforcement and electrical conduction is mainly attributed to their large aspect ratio rather than to strong polymer-filler interactions. The use of hybrid fillers (carbon nanotubes in addition to carbon black or silica, for example) has been shown to give promising results by promoting an enhancement of mechanical and electrical properties with regard to each single filler.
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Liliane Bokobza. ELASTOMERIC COMPOSITES BASED ON NANOSPHERICAL PARTICLES AND CARBON NANOTUBES: A COMPARATIVE STUDY. Rubber Chemistry and Technology, American Chemical Society, 2013, 86 (3), pp.423 - 448. ⟨10.5254/rct.13.86983⟩. ⟨hal-01537634⟩



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