Super- and subradiance of clock atoms in multimode optical waveguides

Abstract : The transversely confined propagating modes of an optical fiber mediate virtually infinite range energy exchanges among atoms placed within their field, which adds to the inherent free space dipole-dipole coupling. Typically, the single atom free space decay rate largely surpasses the emission rate into the guided fiber modes. However, scaling up the atom number as well as the system size amounts to entering a collective emission regime, where fiber-induced superradiant spontaneous emission dominates over free space decay. We numerically study this super-and subradiant decay of highly excited atomic states for one or several transverse fiber modes as present in hollow core fibers. As particular excitation scenarios we compare the decay of a totally inverted state to the case of π/2 pulses applied transversely or along the fiber axis as in standard Ramsey or Rabi interferometry. While a mean field approach fails to correctly describe the initiation of superradiance, a second-order approximation accounting for pairwise atom-atom quantum correlations generally proves sufficient to reliably describe superradiance of ensembles from two to a few hundred particles. In contrast, a full account of subradiance requires the inclusion of all higher order quantum correlations. Considering multiple guided modes introduces a natural effective cutoff for the interaction range emerging from the dephasing of different fiber contributions.
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New Journal of Physics, Institute of Physics: Open Access Journals, 2019, 21 (2), pp.025004. 〈10.1088/1367-2630/ab05fb〉
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Laurin Ostermann, Clément Meignant, Claudiu Genes, Helmut Ritsch. Super- and subradiance of clock atoms in multimode optical waveguides. New Journal of Physics, Institute of Physics: Open Access Journals, 2019, 21 (2), pp.025004. 〈10.1088/1367-2630/ab05fb〉. 〈hal-02068914〉

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