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Lateral variations of pressure-temperature evolution in non-cylindrical orogens and 3-D subduction dynamics: the Betic-Rif Cordillera example

Eloïse Bessière 1, 2, 3 Laurent Jolivet 2 Romain Augier 1, 3 Stéphane Scaillet 1, 3 Jacques Précigout 1 José-Miguel Azañon 4 Ana Crespo-Blanc 4 Emmanuel Masini Damien Do Couto 2 
3 Géodynamique - UMR7327
BRGM - Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM), ISTO - Institut des Sciences de la Terre d'Orléans - UMR7327 : UMR7327, INSU - CNRS - Institut national des sciences de l'Univers, UO - Université d'Orléans : UMR7327
Abstract : The long-term Pressure-Temperature-time-deformation (P-T-t-d) evolution of the internal zones of orogens results from complex interactions between the subducting lithosphere, the overriding plate and the intervening asthenosphere. 2-D numerical models successfully reproduce natural P-T-t-d paths, but most orogens are non-cylindrical and the situation is far more complex due to 3-D pre-orogenic inheritance and 3-D subduction dynamics. The Mediterranean orogens are intrinsically non-cylindrical. Their 3-D geometry results from the complex shape of the Eurasian and African margins before convergence and from the dynamics of slab retreat and tearing leading to strongly arcuate belts. More than many other segments, the Betic-Rif belt is archetypal of this behavior. A synthesis of the tectonometamorphic evolution of the Internal Zones, also based on recent findings by our group in the framework of the Orogen Project (Alboran domain, including the Alpujárride-Sebtide and Nevado-Filábride complexes) shows the relations in space and time between tectonic and P-T evolutions. The reinterpretation of the contact between peridotite massifs and Mesozoic sediments as an extensional detachment leads to a discussion of the geodynamic setting and timing of mantle exhumation. Based on new 40Ar/39Ar ages in the Alpujárride-Sebtide complex and a discussion of published ages in the Nevado-Filábride complex, we conclude that the age of the HP-LT metamorphism is Eocene in all complexes. A first-order observation is the contrast between the well-preserved Eocene HP-LT blueschists-facies rocks of the eastern Alpujárride-Sebtide Complex and the younger HT-LP conditions reaching partial melting recorded in the Western Alpujárride. We propose a model where the large longitudinal variations in the P-T evolution are mainly due to (i) differences in the timing of subduction and exhumation, (ii) the nature of the subducting lithosphere and (iii) a major change in subduction dynamics at ~20 Ma associated with a slab-tearing event. The clustering of radiometric ages obtained with different methods around 20 Ma results from a regional exhumation episode coeval with slab tearing, westward migration of the trench, back-arc extension and thrusting of the whole orogen onto the African and Iberian margins.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, March 31, 2021 - 10:08:19 AM
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Eloïse Bessière, Laurent Jolivet, Romain Augier, Stéphane Scaillet, Jacques Précigout, et al.. Lateral variations of pressure-temperature evolution in non-cylindrical orogens and 3-D subduction dynamics: the Betic-Rif Cordillera example. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, Société géologique de France, 2021, 192 ((1) 8), ⟨10.1051/bsgf/2021007⟩. ⟨hal-03149643v2⟩



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