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Journal Articles Infectious Diseases and Therapy Year : 2022

HIV DNA Sequencing to Detect Archived Antiretroviral Drug Resistance

Abstract

Introduction: Proviral HIV DNA integrated within CD4 T-cells maintains an archive of viral variants that replicate during the course of the infection, including variants with reduced drug susceptibility. We considered studies that investigated archived drug resistance, with a focus on virologically suppressed patients and highlighted interpretative caveats and gaps in knowledge. Results: Either Sanger or deep sequencing can be used to investigate resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) in HIV DNA recovered from peripheral blood. Neither technique is free of limitations. Furthermore, evidence regarding the establishment, maintenance, expression and clinical significance of archived drug-resistant variants is conflicting. This in part reflects the complexity of the HIV proviral landscape and its dynamics during therapy. Clinically, detection of RAMs in cellular HIV DNA has a variable impact on treatment outcomes, modulated by the drugs affected, treatment duration and additional determinants of virological failure, including those leading to suboptimal drug exposure. Conclusions: Sequencing cellular HIV DNA can provide helpful complementary information in treatment-experienced patients with suppressed plasma HIV RNA who require a change of regimen. However, care should be taken when interpreting the results. Presence of RAMs is not necessarily a barrier to treatment success. Conversely, even the most sensitive sequencing techniques will fail to provide a comprehensive view of the HIV DNA archive. To inform treatment decisions appropriately, the overall clinical and treatment history of a patient must always be considered alongside the results of resistance testing. Prospective controlled studies are needed to validate the utility of drug resistance testing using cellular HIV DNA.
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hal-03947683 , version 1 (19-01-2023)

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Anna Maria Geretti, Jose Luis Blanco, Anne Genevieve Marcelin, Carlo Federico Perno, Hans Jurgen Stellbrink, et al.. HIV DNA Sequencing to Detect Archived Antiretroviral Drug Resistance. Infectious Diseases and Therapy, 2022, 11 (5), pp.1793 - 1803. ⟨10.1007/s40121-022-00676-y⟩. ⟨hal-03947683⟩
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