Early humoral response to COVID-19 vaccination in patients living with obesity and diabetes in France. The COVPOP OBEDIAB study with results from the ANRS0001S COV-POPART cohort - Sorbonne Université Access content directly
Journal Articles Metabolism Year : 2023

Early humoral response to COVID-19 vaccination in patients living with obesity and diabetes in France. The COVPOP OBEDIAB study with results from the ANRS0001S COV-POPART cohort

Bénédicte Gaborit
  • Function : Author
Sara Fernandes
  • Function : Author
Paul Loubet
  • Function : Author
Laetitia Ninove
  • Function : Author
Anne Dutour
  • Function : Author
Bertrand Cariou
  • Function : Author
Muriel Coupaye
  • Function : Author
Sébastien Czernichow
  • Function : Author
Claire Carette
  • Function : Author
Noémie Resseguier
  • Function : Author
Laure Esterle
  • Function : Author
Sabrina Kali
  • Function : Author
Marie Houssays
  • Function : Author
Xavier de Lamballerie
  • Function : Author
Linda Wittkop
  • Function : Author
Odile Launay
  • Function : Author

Abstract

Background: Patients with diabetes and obesity are populations at high-risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes and have shown blunted immune responses when administered different vaccines. Here we used the 'ANRS0001S COV-POPART' French nationwide multicenter prospective cohort to investigate early humoral response to COVID-19 vaccination in the sub-cohort ('COVPOP OBEDIAB') of patients with obesity and diabetes. Methods: Patients with diabetes (n = 390, type 1 or 2) or obesity (n = 357) who had received two vaccine doses and had no history of previous COVID-19 infection and negative anti-nucleocapsid (NCP) antibodies were included and compared against healthy subjects (n = 573). Humoral response was assessed at baseline, at one month post-first dose (M0) and one-month post-second dose (M1), through percentage of responders (positive (2023) anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies (Sabs), geometric means of Sabs; BAU/mL), proportion of individuals with anti-RBD antibodies, and proportion of individuals with anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralizing antibodies (Nabs). Potential clinical and biological factors associated with weak response (defined as Sabs < 264 BAU/mL) and presence of non-reactive anti-RBD antibodies at M1 were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate regressions were performed to estimate crude and adjusted coefficients with 95 % confidence intervals. Poor glycemic control was defined as HbA1c >= 7.5 % at inclusion. Results: Patients with diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes, and patients with obesity were less likely to have positive Sabs and anti-RBD antibodies after the first and second dose compared to controls (p < 0.001). At M1, we found Sabs seroconversion in 94.1 % of patients with diabetes versus 99.7 % in controls, anti-RBD sero- conversion in 93.8 % of patients with diabetes versus 99.1 % in controls, and Nabs seroconversion in 95.7 % of patients with diabetes versus 99.6 % in controls (all p < 0.0001). Sabs and anti-RBD seroconversion at M0 and M1 were also significantly lower in obese patients than controls, at respectively 82.1 % versus 89.9 % (p = 0.001; M0 Sabs), 94.4 % versus 99.7 % (p 0.001; M1 Sabs), 79.0 % vs 86.2 % (p = 0.004 M0 anti-RBD), and 96.99 % vs 99.1 % (p = 0.012 M1 anti-RBD). The factors associated with low vaccine response (BAU < 264/mL) in patients with diabetes were chronic kidney disease (adjusted OR = 6.88 [1.77;26.77], p = 0.005) and poor glycemic control (adjusted OR = 3.92 [1.26;12.14], p = 0.018). In addition, BMI >= 40 kg/m2 was found to be associated with a higher vaccine response (adjusted OR = 0.10 [0.01;0.91], p = 0.040) than patients with BMI < 40 kg/m2. Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccine humoral response was lower in patients with obesity and diabetes one month after second dose compared to controls, especially in diabetic patients with CKD or inadequate glycemic control. These findings point to the need for post-vaccination serological checks in these high-risk populations.

Dates and versions

hal-04153541 , version 1 (06-07-2023)

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Bénédicte Gaborit, Sara Fernandes, Paul Loubet, Laetitia Ninove, Anne Dutour, et al.. Early humoral response to COVID-19 vaccination in patients living with obesity and diabetes in France. The COVPOP OBEDIAB study with results from the ANRS0001S COV-POPART cohort. Metabolism, 2023, 142 (7), pp.155412. ⟨10.1016/j.metabol.2023.155412⟩. ⟨hal-04153541⟩
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