Clinical Relevance of Anti-C3 and Anti-C4 Autoantibodies in Lupus Nephritis - Sorbonne Université Access content directly
Journal Articles Kidney International Reports Year : 2024

Clinical Relevance of Anti-C3 and Anti-C4 Autoantibodies in Lupus Nephritis

Abstract

Introduction : Complement system overactivation is pivotal in lupus nephritis (LN) pathophysiology. Considering that anti-C3 autoantibodies play a significant role in LN pathophysiology, we explored them as disease activity biomarkers and compared them to the ones against the homologous protein, C4. Methods : We investigated the presence of anti-C3 and anti-C4 IgG autoantibodies in a LN cohort (N = 85 patients) and monitored their changes over time. We correlated autoantibody presence with clinical parameters. We conducted cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses (N = 295 samples, 8 years follow-up) to explore associations between autoantibodies and disease progression. Antigen-specific anti-C3 or anti-C4 IgG were purified from plasma by affinity chromatography and their reactivity was tested for cross-reactivity against purified C3 or C4 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results : The reactivity against C3 was independent of C4. Our study revealed distinct roles for anti-C3 and anti-C4 in LN. Anti-C3 IgG exhibited stronger clinical correlations than anti-C4, showing associations with hypocomplementemia, anti-dsDNA, class IV LN, and active disease according to British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) renal score. In a longitudinal analysis, anti-C3 positivity at initial sampling predicted present and future disease exacerbation alone and even better when combined with anti-dsDNA, as indicated by a transition to BILAG category A. Conclusion : Our research provides insights into anti-C3/C3b and anti-C4 autoantibodies in LN, revealing that they are often not cross-reactive. Anti-C3 utility as disease activity biomarkers is underscored by its stronger clinical associations and predictive value for future flares. Combining anti-C3 and anti-dsDNA out-performs the 2 factors alone, suggesting that the incorporation of anti-C3/C3b quantification into routine clinical practice could improve LN management.
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hal-04569946 , version 1 (06-05-2024)

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Vasil Vasilev, Mikel Rezola Artero, Marijana Petkova, Galya Mihaylova, Marie-Agnes Dragon-Durey, et al.. Clinical Relevance of Anti-C3 and Anti-C4 Autoantibodies in Lupus Nephritis. Kidney International Reports, 2024, 9 (5), pp.1429 - 1440. ⟨10.1016/j.ekir.2024.01.052⟩. ⟨hal-04569946⟩
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